ig farben zyklon b


The IG Farben Trial was the second of three trials of leading industrialists of Nazi Germany for their conduct during the Nazi regime. IG Farben is the company said to be supporting German terror activities and research of uranium ores in Brazil after World War II in, IG Farben is the name of the arms dealer played by, The company also plays a prominent role in, IG Farben is the German consortium that buys Du Pont in the. Although there was some cooperation between the technical staff in production and accounting, there was little cooperation between the firms in other areas. Head of pharmaceutical sales for the Bayer. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al., also known as the IG Farben Trial, was the sixth of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) after the end of World War II. Royal Dutch Shell was a business partner of I.G. Head of dept. Farben Leverkusen and sold from the Bayer sales office through Degesch, an independent license holder. The defendants in this case had all been directors of IG Farben, a large German conglomerate of chemical firms. [24] In 1904, after returning to Germany, he proposed a nationwide merger of the producers of dye and pharmaceuticals in a memorandum to Gustav von Brüning, the senior manager at Hoechst. [38] Degesch originally supplied the gas to Auschwitz to fumigate clothing that was infested with lice, which carried typhus. John Paul II 1978- 2005 "In the early 1940`s, the I.G. 2 pursuant to Military Government Law No. Sales of Zyklon B amounted to almost three-quarters of Degesch business; enough gas to kill 200 million humans was produced and sold by I.G. Farben (Excerpt from “I.G. produziert. Far-right newspapers of the 1920s and early 1930s accused it of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". Died 1968. Farbenindustrie and the Control Thereof", formalized the seizure for "knowingly and prominently ... building up and maintaining German war potential". When the workers became too weak from starvation or illness to work for the cartel, they were gassed in the camp by a prized IG Farben product called Zyklon-B. The tribunal concluded that the defendants could be held responsible only for this one case. Un conseil de gestion commun fut créé, mais chacune des sociétés conserva son identité propre. Only Schneider, Bütefisch, and von der Heyde were charged on count 4, "Membership in the SS". IG, lit. Hayes writes that the inmates of Auschwitz III, which supplied the slave labour for IG Farben, were well aware of the gas chambers, in part because of the stench from the Auschwitz II crematoria, and in part because IG Farben supervisors in the camp spoke about the gassings, including using the threat of them to make the inmates work harder. [29] The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950). The judges were Curtis Grover Shake (presiding), James Morris, Paul M. Hebert, and Clarence F. Merrell as an alternate judge. IG Farben, Interessengemeinschaft der deutschen Teerfarbenindustrie (Tyska tjärfärgsindustrins intressegemenskap) och från 1925 I.G. I, in charge of nitrogen and gasoline production; Head of the chemical warfare committee at the war ministry; 8 years including time already served; died 1990, Removed from trial due to medical reasons, 2 years including time already served-died 1966, 6 years including time already served; died 1969, 2 years including time already served-died 15 Nov 1950, 3 years including time already served; died 1966, 1½ years including time already served; died 1965, 2 years including time already served; died 1954, 8 years including time already served; died 1967, Head of sales for dyestuffs for south-eastern Europe, 1½ years including time already served. Farben and Krupp trials", "Elimination of German Resources for War", "Die Entflechtung der I.G. [65][2] The division of property followed the division of Germany into four zones: American, British, French and Soviet. In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B. [61] Dürrfeld was sentenced to eight years, then pardoned in 1951 by John McCloy, the American high commissioner for Germany, after which he joined the management or supervisory boards of several chemical companies. In World War II, an IG Farben subsidiary, Degesch, manufactured Zyklon B, the poison gas used at the extermination camps (the other supplier of the gas was the firm Tesch/Stabenow). "[42], By 1943 IG Farben was manufacturing products worth three billion marks in 334 facilities in occupied Europe; almost half its workforce of 330,000 men and women consisted of slave labour or conscripts, including 30,000 Auschwitz prisoners. [69] All were cleared of the first count of waging war. Il a eu lieu du 27 août 1947 au 30 juin 1948. [60] Wurster became chair of the IG Farben board, helped to reestablish BASF as a separate company, and became an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg. The manpower was thousands of forced laborers, most of them Jews, who suffered from hunger and cold and died from the harsh working conditions. Resumed his position at Bayer. Similar mergers took place in other countries. Farben. [7], The company had ties in the 1920s to the liberal German People's Party and was accused by the Nazis of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". [17] What remained of IG Farben in the West was split in 1951 into its six constituent companies, then again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. The twelve U.S. trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials" or, more formally, as the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT). Judge Hebert filed his statement on December 28, 1948, nearly 5 months after the judgment. The firm manufactured large quantities of Zyklon-B gas used by the Nazis to kill millions of Jews at extermination camps during the Holocaust. The French followed suit in the areas they controlled. [50], Peter Hayes (Industry and Ideology: I. G. Farben in the Nazi Era, 2001) compiled the following table showing the increase in Zyklon B ordered by Auschwitz (figures with an asterisk are incomplete). 10, October 1946 – April 1949", The Authentic Records from the Nuremberg Tribunal Against the Oil and Drug Cartel, The “relay of life” to the next generation - IG Farben connection, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IG_Farben_Trial&oldid=992934374, United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 years, including time already served; died 1968, 4 years, including time already served; died 1960, 2½ years, including time already served; died 1962, Chief Counsel; Head of the legal department, Head of dept. Farben Chemical Company employed a Polish salesman who sold cyanide to the Nazis for use in Auschwitz.The same salesman also worked as a chemist in the manufacture of the poison gas. (Case VI)", "The Devil's Chemists on Trial: The American Prosecution of I.G. I — Indicted   G — Indicted and found guilty. One ton of Zyklon B was enough to kill around 312,500 people. [20] Because of this unique situation, the economic historian Alfred Chandler called the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises". [46] A Bayer employee wrote to Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant: "The transport of 150 women arrived in good condition. Telford Taylor was the chief counsel for the prosecution. Disregard of basic human rights did not deter these defendants. Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1931 "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods". [1] The supervisory board members became widely known as, and were said to call themselves jokingly, the "Council of Gods" (Rat der Götter). The patients were suffering from, and in many cases had been deliberately infected with, typhoid, tuberculosis, diphtheria and other diseases, then were given preparations named Rutenol, Periston, B-1012, B-1034, B-1036, 3582 and P-111. Of the 24 defendants arraigned, 13 were found guilty on one or the other counts of the indictment and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one and one half to eight years, including time already served; 10 defendants were acquitted of all charges. Although cartels were attempted, they lasted at most for a few years. [68] The heaviest sentences went to those involved with Auschwitz,[69] which was IG Farben's Upper Rhine group. Profits of the three firms were pooled, with BASF and Bayer getting 43 percent and Agfa 14 percent of all profits. This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 00:25. The four largest quickly bought the smaller ones. Throughout that decade it purged itself of its Jewish employees; the remainder left in 1938. According to prisoner-physicians who witnessed the experiments, after being given the drugs the women would experience circulation problems, bloody vomiting, and painful diarrhea "containing fragments of muscus membrane". [a] These companies continued to operate as an informal cartel and played a major role in the West German Wirtschaftswunder. In October 1904 an Interessen-Gemeinschaft between Bayer, BASF and Agfa was formed, also known as the Dreibund or little IG. Gentlemen who are sent abroad should be made to realize that it is their special duty to represent National Socialist Germany. Allied Control Council. 52", 2 July 1945, which allowed the US to disperse "ownership and control of such of the plants and equipment seized under this order as have not been transferred or destroyed". In 2003 Degussa, a company closely associated with IG Farben during the Nazi period, was involved in a major controversy surrounding its involvement in the construction of the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe ("Holocaust Memorial") in Berlin. On count three ("slave labor"), the judgement "allowed the defendants the benefit of the defense of 'necessity'" (Telford Taylor, "The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials"; International Conciliation, No. [43], Staff of the Bayer group at IG Farben conducted medical experiments on concentration-camp inmates at Auschwitz and at the Mauthausen concentration camp. The remaining few left in 1938 after Hermann Göring issued a decree, as part of the Nazis' Four Year Plan (announced in 1936), that the German government would make foreign exchange available to German firms to fund construction or purchases overseas only if certain conditions were met, which included making sure the company employed no Jews.[9]. Formed in 1925 from a merger of six chemical companies—BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, and Chemische Fabrik vorm. [70] Ambros, Bütefisch, Dürrfeld, Krauch and ter Meer were convicted of "participating in ... enslavement and deportation for slave labor".[71]. Planning, preparation, initiation, and waging of wars of aggression and invasions of other countries. The defendants Ilgner and Kugler were released immediately after the judgement since they had already been in custody longer than their sentence. [34] The company is perhaps best known for its role in producing the poison gas Zyklon B. (Monowitz came to be known as Auschwitz III; Auschwitz I was the administrative centre and Auschwitz II-Birkenau the extermination camp.) [57], The company destroyed most of its records as it became clear that Germany was losing the war. [1] IG Farben also developed processes for synthesizing gasoline and rubber from coal, and thereby contributed much to Germany's ability to wage a war despite having been cut off from all major oil fields. In 1913 these eight firms produced almost 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad. [52] In 1949 Mann became head of pharmaceutical sales at Bayer. Tuhansia ihmisiä kuoli pakkotyönsä aikana. As of 2012[update] it still existed as a corporation in liquidation.[89]. [12][13] One of its subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers during the Holocaust. [citation needed], Although IG Farben was officially put into liquidation in 1952, this did not end the company's legal existence. Volume X: The I.G. It was the largest plant in the world, and one of the cheapest, because it was built and operated by slave labourers from the Auschwitz concentration camp. The firm's factories included a synthetic rubber plant at the Auschwitz concentration camp where 30,000 people worked until they died or were deemed unfit and sent to the gas chambers. IG Farben's products included synthetic dyes, nitrile rubber, polyurethane, prontosil, and chloroquine. Fumigation took place within a closed room, but it was a slow process, so Degesch recommended building small gas chambers, which heated the gas to over 30 °C and killed the lice within one hour. Contrary to other industries, the founders and their families had little influence on the top-level decision-making of the leading German chemical firms, which was in the hands of professional salaried managers. Efter andra världskriget splittrades koncernen (bland annat … [48] The poison gas was supplied by an IG Farben subsidiary, Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung MbH, or German Company for Pest Control). The pesticide Zyklon B, for which IG Farben held the patent, was manufactured by Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), which IG Farben owned 42.2 percent of (in shares) and which had IG Farben managers in its Managing Committee. [45], For one experiment, which tested an anaesthetic, Bayer had 150 women sent from Auschwitz to its own facility. [9] Described as "the most notorious German industrial concern during the Third Reich"[10] in the 1940s the company relied on slave labour from concentration camps, including 30,000 from Auschwitz,[11] and was involved in medical experiments on inmates at both Auschwitz and the Mauthausen concentration camp. IG Farben tenía gerentes en su comité director. [1] BASF was the nominal survivor; all shares were exchanged for BASF shares. [2], Willing cooperation with the slave labor utilization of the Third Reich was a matter of corporate policy that permeated the whole Farben organization... For this reason, criminal responsibility goes beyond the actual immediate participants at Auschwitz. IG Farben-made Zyklon B poison gas canisters were thrown into the shower chambers. [58] Charles Coward, a British POW who had been held at Auschwitz III, told the IG Farben trial: The population at Auschwitz was fully aware that people were being gassed and burned. [88] Each year, the company's annual meeting in Frankfurt was the site of demonstrations by hundreds of protesters. Farbenindustrie AG in Liquidation).[66]. [2] In 1945, according to Raymond G. Stokes, it manufactured all the synthetic rubber and methanol in Germany, 90 percent of its plastic and "organic intermediates", 84 percent of its explosives, 75 percent of its nitrogen and solvents, around 50 percent of its pharmaceuticals, and around 33 percent of its synthetic fuel. [33], Throughout the 1930s the company underwent a process of Aryanization, and by 1938 Jewish employees had been dismissed and the Jews on the board had resigned. In 1938 the company had 218,090 employees. Le Procès IG Farben (officiellement The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al.) [6] Gerhard Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil". Ook zaten er managers van IG Farben in het bestuur van Degesch. According to the historian Peter Hayes, "the killings were an open secret within Farben, and people worked at not reflecting upon what they knew."[39]. The liberal and business-friendly German People's Party was its most pronounced supporter. 450, April 1949). He stated that: ...the record shows that Farben willingly cooperated and gladly utilized each new source of manpower as it developed. The first American air raid on Frankfurt came on January 29, 1944, when a vast fleet of 800 B-17 Flying Fortresses obliterated the entire city—except the IG Farben … Verfassungen der Welt. The IG Farben plant's workforce consisted of slave labour from Auschwitz, leased to the company by the SS for a low daily rate. The successor companies remain some of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical companies. [86], On 10 November 2003 its liquidators filed for insolvency,[87] but this did not affect the existence of the company as a legal entity. [49] The gas was first used on human beings in Auschwitz (650 Soviet POWs and 200 others) in September 1941. IG Farben toimitti tuhoamis-ja keskitysleireille vankien surmaamiseen käytetyn Zyklon B-myrkkykaasun. Medical Experiments in Auschwitz Conducted by I.G. The dispute arose mainly because Degussa had also owned 42.2 percent of the shares in Degesch (… The Sales Combines are also requested to see to it that their agents are adequately supplied with National Socialist literature. They wanted to expand their plants and work on a synthetic gasoline program. "the planning, preparation, initiation, and waging of wars of aggression and invasions of other countries; "committing war crimes and crimes against humanity through the plunder and spoliation of public and private property in countries and territories that came under German occupation; "committing war crimes and crimes against humanity through participating in the enslavement and deportation for slave labor of civilians from German-occupied territories and of German nationals; "participation in a common plan or conspiracy to commit crimes against peace". Une « petite IG », par opposition à lIG de 1925, a été fondée en 1905 par rapprochement concerté des sociétés chimiques BASF, Bayer et Agfa. Thirteen defendants were found guilty,[68] with sentences ranging from 18 months to eight years. Most of the experiments were conducted in Birkenau in Block 20, the women's camp hospital. Three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, produced several hundred different dyes. There were five counts against the IG Farben directors: Of the 24 defendants arraigned, one fell ill and his case was discontinued. "[40] The company placed its resources, technical capabilities and overseas contacts at the German government's disposal. The judges ruled that the prosecution had not shown that the defendants or executive board "had any persuasive influence on the management policies of Degesch or any significant knowledge as to the uses to which its production was being put". [5] Several IG Farben scientists were awarded a Nobel Prize. Farben at Nuremberg", "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. After the Nuremberg trials, companies like BASF and Bayer were formed from the splintered monolith. El pesticida Zyklon B, del cual IG Farben tenía la patente, fue manufacturado por Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), de la cual IG Farben poseía el 42,2 % en acciones. We would kindly request that you send us another group of women to the same number and at the same price. Farben in Liquidation from the 1950s to 1990", "Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #6, The IG Farben Case", "Fritz (Friedrich Hermann) ter Meer (1884–1967)", "Ehemalige Zwangsarbeiter gehen leer aus", Carr, Jay. Liquidation Conclusion Law,[66] naming IG Farben's legal successor as IG Farbenindustrie AG in Abwicklung (IGiA)[67] ("I.G. Weiler Ter Meer (1.9 percent). [14] IG Farben executives did visit Auschwitz but not Auschwitz II-Birkenau, where the gas chambers were located. Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937. Fritz Bauer Institute. www.verfassungen.de. [56] Dürrfeld, a friend of Höss, denied knowing about it.[57]. [25][page needed], Hoechst and several pharmaceutical firms refused to join. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al. In 1978 Joseph Borkin, who investigated the company as a United States Justice Department lawyer, quoted an American report: "Without I.G. By 2004 the university set up a permanent exhibition inside the building, and a memorial plaque, for the slave labourers of IG Farben and those who had perished by Zyklon B gas, was installed on the front of the building. In 1951 the company was split into its original constituent companies. [a], In its heyday, IG Farben was the largest company in Europe and the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world. [72] Those who served prison sentences included: Agfa, BASF and Bayer remained in business; Hoechst spun off its chemical business in 1999 as Celanese AG before merging with Rhône-Poulenc to form Aventis, which later merged with Sanofi-Synthélabo to form Sanofi. The nerve agent Sarin was first discovered by IG Farben. est le sixième des douze procès pour crimes de guerre organisés après la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale par les autorités américaines dans leur zone d'occupation en Allemagne, à Nuremberg. Zyklon B wurde von den Dessauer Werken für Zucker und chemische Industrie (kurz: Fine) und den Kaliwerken Kolin für die Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung m.b.H.) II, which was in charge of the, 7 years, including time already served; died 1967. [4] IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. Peter Hayes writes that the board did not meet after 1940, and that although Mann "continued to review the monthly sales figures for Degesch, he could not necessarily have inferred from them the uses to which the Auschwitz camp was putting the product". Ernst Struss, secretary of the IG Farben's managing board, testified after the war that the company's chief engineer at Auschwitz had told him about the gassings. In June 1941, at the height of World War II, the German chemical giant IG Farben launched a factory to make synthetic rubber, a vital material for military purposes, at Monowitz, an Auschwitz satellite. IG Farben owned 42.5 percent of Degesch shares, and three members of Degesch's 11-person executive board, Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, Heinrich Hörlein and Carl Wurster, were directors of IG Farben. Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937,[5] and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods",[6] and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil". IG Farben was also the company that developed the Zyklon B gas that was used in Nazi death camps to kill Jews and other “undesirables.” Furthermore, IG Farben relied on concentration camp slave labor throughout World War II and the Holocaust. They produced everything from pharmaceuticals to manufacturing chemicals to explosives. In France Établissements Poulenc Frères and Société Chimique des Usines du Rhône merged to form Rhône-Poulenc in 1928. [59], Mann, Hörlein and Wuster (directors of both IG Farben and Degesch) were acquitted at the IG Farben trial in 1948 of having supplied Zyklon B for the purpose of mass extermination. All defendants who were sentenced to prison received early release. (1947–1948), also known as the IG Farben trial, was the sixth of 12 trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) against leading industrialists of Nazi Germany. [16] By 1951 all had been released by the American high commissioner for Germany, John J. They paid RM 150 per woman, all of whom died as a result of the research; the camp had asked for RM 200 per person, but Bayer had said that was too high. Weiler Ter Meer[1]—it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies. The Nazi chemicals giant IG Farben used forced labor and made poison gas. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Products It manufactured Zyklon B, the gas-chamber poison, among many other products, and its factories exploited more than 35,000 slave laborers, many from Auschwitz. Die Degesch war zwar eine Verkaufsagentur, besaß aber das Patent zur Herstellung von Zyklon B. Anteilseigner der Degesch waren die I.G. The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor. This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 22:10. [citation needed], In 2001 IG Farben announced that it would formally wind up its affairs in 2003. Farbenindustrie AG, var en tysk kemi- och läkemedelskoncern.IG Farben med huvudkontor i Frankfurt am Main blev världens största kemikoncern efter bildandet 1925. [8] The company ended up being the "largest single contribution" to the successful Nazi election campaign of 1933;[32] there is also evidence of "secret contributions" to the party in 1931 and 1932. Farben (42,5%), die Degussa (42,5%) und der Theo-G… Farbenindustrie A.G. und die Gründung der Nachfolgegesellschaften", List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IG_Farben&oldid=992193724, Conglomerate companies disestablished in 1951, Conglomerate companies established in 1925, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Percentage of production ordered by Auschwitz, Joined supervisory board of the Bunawerke Hüls GmbH, Supervisory board member, manager of IG Farben Auschwitz, Supervisory board member, head of fuel sector at IG Farben Auschwitz, Board member for Deutsche Gasolin AG, Feldmühle, and Papier- und Zellstoffwerke AG; consultant and board member for Ruhrchemie AG Oberhausen, President, Deutsch-Ibero-Amerikanische Gesellschaft, Chair of the board of a chemistry firm in, Board member, head of IG Farben's Upper Rhine Business Group, IG Farben board chair and led the reestablishment of. Degussa produced the anti-graffiti substance Protectosil used to cover the stelae which are the major element in the memorial. As almost all its assets and all its activities had been transferred to the original constituent companies, IG Farben was from 1952 largely a shell company with no real activity. Le Zyklon B est un pesticide à base d'acide cyanhydrique breveté par le chimiste Walter Heerdt (ancien collaborateur de Fritz Haber) et produit par la firme allemande Degesch.. Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les nazis l'ont utilisé dans les chambres à gaz des centres d'extermination : les premiers essais homicides ont été effectués dans le bloc 11 d'Auschwitz I …

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